Journal Articles 2013

This page contains details of some of the recent journal article publications by members of the Institute for Retail Studies. Pre-print versions of these articles are available online from the University of Stirling’s Depository (STORRE) in most cases, or contact the author or Leigh Sparks directly.

Young-Sang Cho, Steve Burt and John Dawson (2013) “Why do Local South Korean Market Leaders Supply Retailer Grocery Brands?” Journal of Asia-Pacific Business, 14, 4, pp 336-360.

This article examines why many of the leading South Korean brand manufacturers produce retailer brand products within their major product categories. The reasons identified include pressure from retailers, protection of other national brand product ranges, maintenance or improvements in working relationships, protection of other distribution channels, savings in marketing budgets, diversification of product lines, and changing competitive structures. Evidence is also provided of the dynamic nature of decision making relating to retail brand supply across the whole portfolio of brands which the manufacturer offers, rather than in respect of individual product brands or markets, the focus of much existing work.

Eric Calderwood and Keri Davies (2013) “Co-operatives in the Retail Sector – can one label fit all?” Journal of Co-operative Studies, 46 (1) pp 16-31. Available at

Studies of the development and strategic approaches of co-operative retailers have tended to focus on the tension between management styles, given labels such as ‘traders’ and ‘idealists,’ and the ways in which co-operatives then deal with their members. Most issue a general call for the greater integration of co-operative values and principles into strategic behaviour. However, these approaches often overlook the variety of organisational forms adopted by co-operative retailers and the effect that these have on their operations and their focus on co-operative principles. Thus, the needs and expectations of members will vary significantly between consumer co-operatives, worker co-operatives and retailer-sponsored co-operatives. Large co-operative retailers also have to deal with the expectations of non-members who will make up a major proportion of their customer
base. To provide a basis for the discussion of different strategies in the retail sector, a typology of co‑operative retail forms is proposed.

Eric Calderwood and Paul Freathy (2013) “Rebranding a federation: Insights from the UK co-operative movement”. Journal of Marketing Management, iFirst version available at DOI: 10.1080/0267257X.2013.810167

This paper details the rebranding process undertaken by the UK co-operative movement and provides an understanding of the strategic issues involved in maintaining a coherent brand identity across a group of autonomous, independent societies. The methodology uses previously unpublished and archive material from across the movement. This is followed by a series of semi-structured interviews with Board Directors, senior management and individuals responsible for implementing the rebranding strategy. The rebranding exercise took almost ten years and the research identifies nine (non-discrete) overlapping stages. The paper argues that while many parallels can be drawn with the corporate rebranding literature, the need to achieve compromise and consensus combined with the independence of those participating creates issues not detailed in previous academic studies.

Marta Frasquet, John Dawson, Alejandro Molla (2013) “Post-entry internationalisation activity of retailers: An assessment of dynamic capabilities”. Management Decision 51(7), 1510-1527. Available at

The aim of this paper is to propose a framework, based on empirical research, to explain the strategic processes of post-entry development in international retailing through consideration of the dynamic capabilities attributable to retailers. It uses a case study approach of five international retail firms using secondary data and primary data gathered through interviews with firms’ executives and financial analysts. The findings of our research in the light of the existing literature suggest a framework that makes
a distinction between first level or generic dynamic capabilities relevant to the internationalisation process and second level or specific dynamic capabilities that are linked to particular strategies used by individual retail firms as they internationalise

Mhairi Donaghy, Anne Findlay and Leigh Sparks (2013) “The Evaluation of Business Improvement Districts: questions and issues from the Scottish experience”, Local Economy, Available at

Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) are an increasingly familiar component of the management of places and the delivery of some services. However, how do we know if they succeed? An extended framework for the evaluation of BIDs is developed and then used in primary research on the Pathfinder BIDs in Scotland. The proposed framework, incorporating less tangible aspects of BIDs operations, appears to capture broad dimensions of activities, outcomes, impacts and processes. The Scottish experience shows limitations in traditional evaluation of BIDs and the benefits of an extended evaluation framework.

Anne Findlay and Leigh Sparks (2013) Planning for retailing – on the edge? Town and Country Planning, Vol. 82 Iss: 4, pp 160-162

In their latest Trading Places column, Anne Findlay and Leigh Sparks suggest that retail planning is becoming increasingly – and inappropriately – marginalised. They argue that planners need to be able to create new visions of town centres, which means engaging locally and not just through transient populist competitions. (See Trading Places section of this blog)

Eric Calderwood and Keri Davies  (2013) Localism and the community shop, Local Economy, Vol. 28 Iss: 3, pp 339-349. Available at:

There has been considerable interest in recent years in the establishment of community retail enterprises; local shops owned and run by the local community often as an alternative to the closure of the last privately-owned shop in the area. Government efforts to give local communities more rights and powers, including a community right to bid for ‘assets of community value,’ would seem to offer new opportunities for such enterprises. However, there are more barriers to the establishment and continued running of these enterprises than might appear at first sight. Community retail enterprises often need specific support from local and national organisations tailored to the different stages in their development if they are to fulfil their potential.

Anne Findlay and Leigh Sparks (2013) pick’n’mix for local shopping parades, Town and Country Planning, Vol. 82 Iss: 1, pp 8-10

Anne Findlay and Leigh Sparks have taken over the Trading Places column in Town and Country Planning from the recently retired Cliff Guy, who expertly guided the column for almost 13 years. In their second column they consider the vitality of local shopping parades. (See Trading Places section of this blog)

Paul Freathy and Eric Calderwood (2013) “The Impact of Internet Adoption upon the Shopping behaviour of Island Residents”. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services,Vol 20. Iss: 1, pp 111-119. Available at

This qualitative, exploratory research study interviews individuals across three UK island groups and examines the extent to which on-line provision has reconfigured the purchasing behaviour of local residents. The findings confirm that internet usage is widespread and that a broad range of products are purchased on-line. However the paper maintains that these findings underplay the significance of e-retailing. The internet has had a much more profound impact upon island consumers and the benefits that are derived from on-line availability extend beyond the reconfiguration of shopping patterns., fundamentally transforming the lives of many individuals. It has acted as a liberating mechanism that has positively impacted upon domestic undertakings and socio-cultural activities.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s